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Leadership, by the book: the Army Manual book July 10, 2017

Posted by mariemanthey in Leadership, Professional Practice, Values.
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Re: 
U.S. Army's Army Field Manual 6_22 on Leader Development
i.t.o. psychological & psychiatric criteria for leadership.

This content is written by Prudence L. Gourguechon, widely known national expert on psychoanalysis for the fields of business, law, politics and marketing.

“Despite the thousands of articles and books written on leadership, primarily in the business arena, I have found only one source where the capacities necessary for strategic leadership are clearly and comprehensively laid out: the U.S. Army’s “Field Manual 6-22 Leader Development.”

“The Army’s field manual on leadership is an extraordinarily sophisticated document, founded in sound psychological research and psychiatric theory, as well as military practice. It articulates the core faculties that officers, including commanders, need in order to fulfill their jobs. From the manual’s 135 dense pages, I have distilled five crucial qualities:

Trust

“According to the Army, trust is fundamental to the functioning of a team or alliance in any setting: “Leaders shape the ethical climate of their organization while developing the trust and relationships that enable proper leadership.” A leader who is deficient in the capacity for trust makes little effort to support others, may be isolated and aloof, may be apathetic about discrimination, allows distrustful behaviors to persist among team members, makes unrealistic promises and focuses on self-promotion.

Discipline and self-control

“The manual requires that a leader demonstrate control over his behavior and align his behavior with core Army values: “Loyalty, duty, respect, selfless service, honor, integrity, and personal courage.” The disciplined leader does not have emotional outbursts or act impulsively, and he maintains composure in stressful or adverse situations. Without discipline and self-control, a leader may not be able to resist temptation, to stay focused despite distractions, to avoid impulsive action or to think before jumping to a conclusion. The leader who fails to demonstrate discipline reacts “viscerally or angrily when receiving bad news or conflicting information,” and he “allows personal emotions to drive decisions or guide responses to emotionally charged situations.”

“In psychiatry, we talk about “filters” — neurologic braking systems that enable us to appropriately inhibit our speech and actions even when disturbing thoughts or powerful emotions are present. Discipline and self-control require that an individual has a robust working filter, so that he doesn’t say or do everything that comes to mind.

Judgment and critical thinking

“These are complex, high-level mental functions that include the abilities to discriminate, assess, plan, decide, anticipate, prioritize and compare. A leader with the capacity for critical thinking “seeks to obtain the most thorough and accurate understanding possible,” the manual says, and he anticipates “first, second and third consequences of multiple courses of action.” A leader deficient in judgment and strategic thinking demonstrates rigid and inflexible thinking.

Self-awareness

“Self-awareness requires the capacity to reflect and an interest in doing so. “Self-aware leaders know themselves, including their traits, feelings, and behaviors,” the manual says. “They employ self-understanding and recognize their effect on others.” When a leader lacks self-awareness, the manual notes, he “unfairly blames subordinates when failures are experienced” and “rejects or lacks interest in feedback.”

Empathy

“Perhaps surprisingly, the field manual repeatedly stresses the importance of empathy as an essential attribute for Army leadership. A good leader “demonstrates an understanding of another person’s point of view” and “identifies with others’ feelings and emotions.” The manual’s description of inadequacy in this area: “Shows a lack of concern for others’ emotional distress” and “displays an inability to take another’s perspective.””

===========================

From an intraprofessional leadership perspective, this is a universal summary of essential leadership skills from a valid source.   Going back to Florence Nightingale, great leaders when matched to this set of criteria have great capacity to be powerful leaders who truly make a difference. Hospital origins were deeply linked to the military mindset of regimentation, discipline, following the chain of command, and maintaining discipline. Sometimes in ways that de-humanized patient care.

This value-based list of leadership skills represents an exciting awareness important values that can greatly improve performance and promote better engagement.

My own learning during the early development of Primary Nursing included an invaluable gift from ‘military literature’.    I don’t remember the exact document or book, but I know the conceptual paradigm of Responsibility Authority and Accountability came directly from a description of  a military ‘chain of command’ writing.   We were not using words like that in nursing during PN’s early development.

Every sector has a contribution to make to the collective well-being!

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References:

http://www.latimes.com/opinion/op-ed/la-oe-gourguechon-25th-amendment-leadership-mental-capacities-checklist-20170616-story.html

From: Longfellow To: Nightingale July 4, 2017

Posted by mariemanthey in History, Inspiration.
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Santa Filomena

Poem by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Whene’er a noble deed is wrought,
Whene’er is spoken a noble thought,
Our hearts, in glad surprise,
To higher levels rise.

The tidal wave of deeper souls
Into our inmost being rolls,
And lifts us unawares
Out of all meaner cares.

Honor to those whose words or deeds
Thus help us in our daily needs,
And by their overflow
Raise us from what is low!

Thus thought I, as by night I read
Of the great army of the dead,
The trenches cold and damp,
The starved and frozen camp,–

The wounded from the battle-plain,
In dreary hospitals of pain,
The cheerless corridors,
The cold and stony floors.

Lo! in that house of misery
A lady with a lamp I see
Pass through the glimmering gloom,
And flit from room to room.

And slow, as in a dream of bliss,
The speechless sufferer turns to kiss
Her shadow, as it falls
Upon the darkening walls.

As if a door in heaven should be
Opened and then closed suddenly,
The vision came and went,
The light shone and was spent.

On England’s annals, through the long
Hereafter of her speech and song,
That light its rays shall cast
From portals of the past.

A Lady with a Lamp shall stand
In the great history of the land,
A noble type of good,
Heroic womanhood.

Nor even shall be wanting here
The palm, the lily, and the spear,
The symbols that of yore
Saint Filomena bore.

Meeting Challenges – Ripple Effects July 3, 2017

Posted by mariemanthey in History, Inspiration, Leadership, Professional Practice, Values.
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Nursing through a lens of history.

As we celebrate the victory in battle that lead to the signing of the Declaration of Independence this weekend, my thoughts are on how often nursing is spotlighted and impacted during wartime.  A cataclysmic example of this is the lasting affect  of Florence Nightingale’s work during the battle of Crimea.

That situation was a terrible one, full of despair and unpredictability.  Florence went voluntarily into that mess  because of how desperate it was, and acted on her values, knowledge and skills to change that reality. The depth of the damage to soldiers and the impact of her reforms  set in motion a profound  reaction, which in this instance included seeds of change vastly greater in scope than that particular problem.   The death rate among hospitalized soldiers was amazingly reduced due to her reforms, and the whole country of England honored her for this achievement.

In particular, she provided compassion, and she managed the environment to a degree of sanitation that was new to that setting. The depth and cohesion of her response to that situation was beyond what anyone expected.  No one involved in that war would have  predicted or imagined that the outcome of that war would be the modern practice of nursing.

When people engage in the struggle to do their best in difficult times, positive outcomes are more likely.. not only in that moment, but decades and centuries later.

New Historical Resources: Nightingale and Barton June 29, 2017

Posted by mariemanthey in History, Inspiration, Thought for today.
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I came across these resources recently, and wanted to share them.

One new thing is a collection of Florence Nightingale’s letters – being digitized, and soon available to all on the web!

The other is the Clara Baron Missing Soldiers Office, Washington DC’s newest Museum.

As we rest up after the amazing Symposium last week, it’s fun to see progress continue on the embrace of our history. I just love the trajectory of really knowing our history, having clarity about the current situation  and beng aware of future trends in society that will impact our profession.  That awareness can lead us into proactive planning, rather than the reactivity that has so often directed our responses.

As it happens: RBC Symposium Day 1 June 19, 2017

Posted by mariemanthey in Creative Health Care Management, Inspiration, Leadership, Manthey Life Mosaic, Professional Practice, Values.
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Today is the pre-conference afternoon of the 2017 International Relationship-Based Care Symposium, here in Minneapolis at the Hilton Minneapolis!

Here are links to the handout materials available at this time:

Gratitude_Human_Connection

DeepenFacilitationCapacity

It’s been great already to have a brunch at my home – to which I invited international guests, several local nursing leaders and CHCM consultants. Conversations ranged over various topics including comparisons between people’s situations in different countries.

The conference itself is a very enthusiastic experience! I have been constantly in motion and it’s wonderful. Everyone is very happy to be here and many are saying ‘this is exactly what we need at our hospital!’

This afternoon I was able to be a surprise guest at the Daisy Foundation session. I spoke about the the impact of Florence Marie Fisher coloring in my coloring book, and also what a wonderful thing it was for me to be able to nominate her for the DAISY award. In closing I brought in Florence Nightingale as well.

I enjoy talking about the power of nursing: as I experienced in my lifetime the impact of my nurse when I was five years old.  I like to make it clear that the work that I’ve been involved in leading is directly the result of Florence Marie Fisher coloring in my coloring book.

I don’t think that that concept can possibly be emphasized too strongly: the power of good nursing care!

Much more to come, looking forward to sharing it with all of you!

 

 

Personally… Being Mortal by Atul Gawande June 11, 2017

Posted by mariemanthey in Inspiration, Manthey Life Mosaic, Professional Practice.
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I lost a close friend recently, after a long struggle with some chronic medical conditions.

It’s a sad period, but one comfort is that his last days went as well as they possibly could. I’m reminded of this book: Being Mortal, written by practicing surgeon Atul Gawande.

In the book Atul explores what it means to ensure that the positive meanings of one’s life extend through the final phases of that life, clinically and in all other ways. Atul has completely defeated the normative medical profession’s reluctance to address that period after medicine stops being applicable. He explores what continues to be important for the person themself and their family.

I found it extremely moving and useful – not just for that period but for everyday. Highly recommend!

Additional Resources:

NY Times Book Review

Frontline: PBS Special

Pennsylvania Library Book Discussion Notes

The Guardian Book Review

Blast from the Past: Feisty Former Chicagoan (1978) May 13, 2017

Posted by mariemanthey in History, Inspiration, Leadership, Manthey Life Mosaic, Professional Practice, Values.
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Primary Nursing: Hospitals bring back Florence Nightingale

ChgoTrib_2.78_PageOne
ChgoTrib_2.78_PageTwo

This article was one of the first in mainstream media about Primary Nursing, Marie Manthey .. and Florence Nightingale!

The picture on page 1 is so wonderful, isn’t it?

Here are some excerpts from the article, which you can see directly via the links at the top of this post.

“We’re not just dealing with inert lumps of flesh that hurt” Davis says. “We’re dealing with people’s emotional well-being, too. And that’s what makes nursing exciting again.”

Chicago Tribune: Sunday, February 2, 1978

by Joan Zyda

Sometime after World War II, the American registered nurse was forced into being less like Florence Nightingale and more like a factory foreman.

The shortage of nurses resulted in assembly-line nursing, which brought with it an assortment of nameless, often uncaring persons who trained for brief periods before being turned loose on patients. They were practical nurses, vocational nurses, technicians, orderlies, nurse’s aides, and nursing assistants.

If you’ve been in a hospital in the lst three decades, you have seen this production line in action. Somebody took your temperature, somebody else gave you a bath, somebody else took your blod pressure, somebody else brought in your food tray, somebody else …

Conducting this “orchestra” was, and still is, the chief duty of the registered nurse in most hospitals. Despite years of learning to care for sick people, she ends up in a supervisory job that takes her out of the mainstream of patient care. If she sees patients at all, it’s only briefly when she gives them a shot or a pill, or if there’s a “problem.”

“The patients are completely perplexed and often get irritable or depressed by this fragmented and impersonal care; it frights and frustrates the doctors; the morale of nurses sinks to an incredible low, resulting in a high turnover rate and absenteeism; and it has caused a decline in patient care at many hospitals,” says Dr. William Shaffrrath, diretor of the National Joint Practice Commission in Chicago.

The commission was set up in 1972 by the American Medical Association and the American Nurses Association to solve the growing dissatisfaction with hospital nursing care.

Teh solution, with which the commission has been shaking the pillars of medicine, is to put the registered nurse back at the patient’s bedside, where she can use her training. Some hospitals have already done this, including Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke’s Medical Center, University of Chicago Hospitals, Good Samaritan Hospital in Downers Grove, and Evanston Hospital.

“Most nurses we talked to are frustrated. They don’t want to be supervisors,” Schaffrath says. “They prefer hands-on nursing in the Florence Nightingale tradition. They want to walk cot to cot, tending to and cheering on the patients.”

Schaffrath credits Marie Manthey, 42, a fiesty former Chicagoan and now vice president of patient services at Yale-New Haven Hospital in Connecticut, for blowing the whistle on nursing. She has advocated for the “return to the bedside” alternative in articles in several prominent medical journals.

As a registered nurse for 22 years, Manthey has had an inside look at the failings of her profession.

“Registered nurses have become faceless people, and it’s the system’s fault,” she says. “Nursing has become extremely production-oriented with very little concern for human needs. Most nurses are embarrassed about that. They say, almost apologetically, ‘Well, I’m just a staff nurse,’ which equates to, ‘I’m just a housewife.’

“But if nurses got their identity back,” Manthey says, “they’d be a proud people again. Then they’d be saying, ‘Hey, wait a minute. I am a staff nurse. I am an important person.”

“Nurses are supposed to be in the thick of things,” Manthey says firmly.

Manthey has coined her remedy, “Primary Nursing” a system whose main goal is just that — to get the nurse to provide total nursing care to a patient during their hospitalization. That means the same nurse does all the work for a patient from admission to discharge.

“The Nurse and the Patient get to know each other,” Manthey says.

With Primary Nursing, the nurse takes over many tasks she used to assign her aides.. because they’re all relevant to patient care.”

/ end content on front page of article, clip 1of2

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For further content from this article, see clipping number 2, and/or let us know if you’d like us to post further excerpts here.

Isn’t it amazing to look back and remember the days when Nursing was at that factory-process level??

What Would Nightingale Do? May 12, 2017

Posted by mariemanthey in History, Inspiration, Leadership.
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Happy birthday, Florence Nightingale!

Florence’s life and career continue to be an inspiration for Nursing as well as leaders in general. She was an extraordinary strategist who had powerful insights into organizational dynamics. Facing a challenge, she would assess the pockets of power, align herself with strong allies, and convince people that a solution to the problem would be found.

She was able to make tough choices, including letting some things go until they had to be fixed.

I’m reminded of the story of her arrival in Crimea. The British Military Surgeons refused to let her enter the hospital. They did not want to deal with a “do-gooder” … and a lady at that.

The fact that she arrived with a ship fully loaded with medical supplies, dressings, bedding, food, clothing, etc. gave her the leverage she needed.

She responded to their refusal to let her enter the hospital by refusing to allow the ship to be unloaded. For some days it sat in the harbor with desperately needed medicine, equipment and supplies — until finally surgeons changed their minds and invited her and her nurses to come work in the hospital. It seems clear to me that during those days the ship was in the harbor, there were patients who suffered because they didn’t have the food and medicine on the ship.

The lesson I take from this is that the strategy of letting a failing system fail might be better than the situation-by-situation “fixes” nurses engage in, which take them away from the patient.   Complex systems call for systems-based solutions.  Strategy is important.

We need the courage of Nightingale to focus our energy where it will be best used for patient care now, as she did back then.

Richard Olding Beard: An Extraordinary Feminist. May 7, 2017

Posted by mariemanthey in Academia, History, Inspiration, Professional Practice.
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This note is about a work-in-progress, a scratch pad entry from the Desk of Marie Manthey.. it includes a resource list at the end and an invitation to comment and join in the process!

Nursing and the Women’s Movement have had an interesting, challenging and contradictory relationship since modern nursing was born around the 1870’s.

Never a feminist herself, Florence Nightingale created a profession for nurses – for women – where none had existed before. This profession is based on values that have been associated with women.

Fast forward 40 years to the life of Richard Olding Beard, a professor of physiology in the University of Minnesota Medical School. His strong vision of the contribution nursing could make to the benefit of society gave the school of nursing a trajectory that continues to compel the future.

He founded the School of Nursing at the University of Minnesota, which was the first nursing education program within an academic institution. He clearly supported higher education for women and recognized the foundation of science in nursing. He presciently imbued the School of Nursing with multiple societal values that continue to be expressed in the work of its graduates today. Richard Olding Beard saw Nursing’s potential capacity for increasing social justice in the world; for example because of how nursing values the act of caring for the sick – all of them – without regard for position, wealth or status.

There is much more to come, in the full article. To end this preview, here is one of my favorite quotes of his:

“The history of a university or school – and particularly of a professional school – may be guided or misguided by its governing body, may be inspired or uninspired by its faculty, but it is actually written in the work and in the play, in the life and character, in the future achievements and influence of its students.” R. O. Beard, Graduation of the School of Nursing, September 1923.

Beard’s writings (articles mainly) have been a treasure trove for me, and I encourage you to check them out. There is a collection of his writings at the Anderson Archives at the University of Minnesota Library.

Additional information: Honoring the Past, Creating the Future – School of Nursing Celebrates a Century of Leadership. Minnesota Nursing, Spring/Summer 2009. P 2-3.

Please comment below with any questions, thoughts, anecdotes etc..!

Looking forward to Nurses Week! May 5, 2017

Posted by mariemanthey in Inspiration, Professional Practice, Thought for today.
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May is Nurses Month!

Let us take this opportunity in the cycle of time to reflect and celebrate the gift that we have.

Forever, in the history of civilization, there has been an inclination among people to reach out and help another in need in their community. Forever, in the history of civilization, it has been understood that this form of human interaction is of greater benefit to society then interactions that are harmful, destructive, damaging, or painful. Yet, for reasons that are somewhat imperfectly understood (by us and others), those of us who regularly engage in the helpful and compassionate interactions are undervalued, or devalued in this particular period of the history of mankind.

The fact that materialism, success in business, scientific knowledge, wealth, and gaining a competitive edge using aggressive techniques are the common sources of prestige and status must not interfere with the clarity of our vision that the work we do has enormous significance in the ultimate advancement of civilization.

Nurses are among the most trusted professionals in the eyes of the public, but that trust not always taken into account in the rewards side of the ledger. Nurses need to stop taking personally the way society can undervalue our work, and focus on making visible the impact our type of interaction can have on the level of civilization experienced by those who live in the world today.

Let us celebrate the power we can have via the choices we make in our nursing interactions with humanity… let us find ways to help the rest of the world understand what it is missing.. let us cherish the feeling we get from our work when we are conscious of the sanctity of one human being helping another.

For that is what Nursing is.

Let us Celebrate!!

Updated from original text published in ‘Primarily Nursing’, From the Desk Of column, 1988.